Common health issues that can be positively affected, prevented or controlled by exercise with the CORE X SYSTEM!
People of all ages can improve the quality of their lives and reduce the risks of developing coronary heart disease, hypertension, some cancers and type 2 diabetes with ongoing participation in moderate physical activity and exercise. Daily exercise will also enhance one’s mental well-being and promote healthy musculoskeletal function throughout life. Although habitual physical activity is an attainable goal on the path to a healthier life, more than half of U.S. adults do not get ≥ 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per day at least 5 days per week (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
A formidable challenge facing many personal fitness trainers and other health and fitness professionals is finding new ways of motivating people to improve their well-being through consistent participation in physical activity and exercise. As indicated, significant health benefits can be obtained by engaging in moderate amounts of physical activity on most, and preferably all, days of the week. Fitness programs involving progressively increasing intensities of exercise will elicit even greater cardioprotective benefits. There is a growing understanding of how certain levels of physical activity may positively affect cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, respiratory and endocrine function, as well as mental health.
– Cardiovascular Disease
The leading health-related cause of mortality for men and women in the U.S. is cardiovascular disease(CVD). Meaningful cardiovascular health benefits may be attained with long-term participation in cardiovascular exercise. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with a 50% reduction in CVD risk in men. Increasing physical activity to a total of at least 1,000 kilocalories per week is associated with a 20% reduction of mortality in men. Physically inactive middle-aged women (engaging in less than 1 hour of exercise per week) doubled their risk of mortality from CVD compared with their physically active female counterparts.
Diabetes has reached endemic proportions, affecting 170 million individuals worldwide. One unfortunate health consequence of physical inactivity is the weakening of the body’s insulin regulatory mechanisms. Elevated insulin and blood glucose levels are characteristic features involved in the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. When insulin function starts breaking down, the body’s blood sugar levels rise, leading eventually to the onset of “prediabetes” and then type 2 diabetes. Diabetes incidence is growing among youth and adults, largely as a result of obesity and inactivity. Regular aerobic exercise meaningfully increases insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, which means the body’s cells can more efficiently transport glucose into the cells of the liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Improvements in glucose metabolism with strength training, independent of alterations in aerobic capacity or percent body fat, have also been shown. Although the mechanisms for improvement are not fully understood, it appears that both resistance training and aerobic exercise offer a strong protective role in the prevention of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Hypertension is a major health problem. Elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels are associated with a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure, stroke and kidney failure. There is a onefold increase in developing these diseases when blood pressure is 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). In many cases, clients can reduce elevated blood pressure by decreasing weight and lowering alcohol and salt intake in their diet. Fitness trainers and instructors can also pass along the good word to clients that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (40%–50% of VO2max), performed 3–5 times per week for 30–60 minutes per session, appears to be effective in reducing blood pressure (when elevated). In a recent meta-analysis of 54 clinical aerobic exercise intervention trials, findings (in hypertensive men and women) included a reduction, on average, of 3.84 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 2.58 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure.
During resistance exercise, systolic and diastolic blood pressures may show steep increases, which indicates that caution should be observed with persons with known CVD or CVD risk factors. These increases in blood pressure are dependent on the intensity of the contraction, the length of time the contraction is held and the amount of muscle mass involved in the contraction.
The link between cholesterol and CHD has been fairly well established through long-term studies of individuals with high levels of blood cholesterol and the incidence of CHD. As high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (good cholesterol) levels increase, they are independently associated with lower risk of CHD. It is also well established that a sedentary lifestyle contributes significantly to the development of CHD and to unfavorable elevation of blood fats and cholesterol levels; physical activity plays an important role in decreasing these health risks.
Physical activity exerts a positive effect in lessening the risk of stroke in men and women. Individuals who engage in moderate to high amounts of physical activity have a lower risk of stroke incidence compared with people who accumulate little exercise. Statistics show that those who are moderately active have a 20% lower risk of stroke while those who are highly active have a 27% lower risk of stroke.
Physical activity and exercise are correlated with a lower incidence of colon cancer in men and women, and breast cancer in women. Moderate to vigorous physical activity has a greater protective effect than lower intensities of physical activity. Physically active men and women have a 30%–40% reduction in relative risk for colon cancer compared with their inactive counterparts. 30–60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per day is needed for this risk reduction, with higher levels of exercise showing even lower risk. In addition, physically active women have a 20%–40% reduction in relative risk for breast cancer compared with their inactive counterparts. 30–60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per day is needed to elicit this level of risk reduction.
Physical activities that stimulate bone growth need to include progressive overload and must address variation and specificity of load. Specificity of load refers to exercises that directly place a load on a certain region of the skeleton. With osteoporosis, a degenerative disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density resulting in a susceptibility to bone fractures and health problems, it appears that resistance training may provide the needed stimulus for bone formation. Progressive overload is necessary so the bone and associated connective tissue do not exceed the critical level that would place them at risk. Exercise programs to maintain and increase bone growth should be full-body in nature, including exercises such as squats and lunges, which direct the forces through the axial skeleton and allow for greater loads to be used. Harder relative intensities of effort and greater volumes of physical activity are more effective in increasing bone density.
Muscle mass, strength, power and endurance are essential contributing factors for the improvement of musculoskeletal health and the enhancement of movement capabilities.
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. The rate of muscle loss with age is relatively consistent, approximately 1%–2% per year starting at age 50. There is a linear relationship with loss of muscle strength and loss of independence, contributing to falls, fractures and other physical injuries. In addition, there is a decrease in metabolic rate and maximal oxygen consumption (owing to the loss of muscle mass).
Improved musculoskeletal health may allow elderly persons to perform activities of daily living more effectively and with less effort. Resistance training guidelines for elderly persons suggest performing at least 1 set of 8–10 exercises that use all of the major muscle groups. Each set should include 10–15 repetitions that elicit a somewhat hard intensity for the active older exerciser. For sarcopenia prevention, using the CORE X SYSTEM for these exercises require less skill and may allows the user to more easily control the exercise range of motion.
– Body Composition and Obesity
Obesity has risen to epidemic levels in the U.S., with more than 65% of adults overweight and 31% obese (ACSM 2006). According to the CDC (2007b), overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for hypertension, osteoarthritis, abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, sleep apnea, respiratory problems and some cancers (endometrial, breast and colon).
The most favorable approach to weight loss is one that includes committed cardiovascular exercise, resistance training and caloric restriction within a sound behavioral-modification delivery program. Weight loss is achieved most effectively when cardiovascular exercise is increased up to 200–300 minutes of moderate-intensity activity accumulated over 5–7 days per week (which is equivalent to expending ≥ 2,000 kilocalories per week exercising).
Resistance training research has shown meaningful changes in body composition. One of the noteworthy benefits of resistance exercise, as it relates to body composition, is the positive impact of maintaining or increasing fat-free body mass while encouraging the loss of fat body weight in a progressive overload resistance training program.
Arthritis is a broad term referring to more than 100 rheumatic diseases. Of the many types of arthritis, osteoarthritis (a degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory disorder affecting multiple joints) are the two most prevalent. Arthritis is a health problem commonly characterized by stiffness, pain and loss of joint function, and it affects people of all ages, genders and ethnic groups. It may imperil the physical, psychological, social and economic well-being of individuals, depriving them of their independence. Physicians commonly prescribe exercise as a treatment modality for arthritis. Consistent exercise improves aerobic capacity, muscle strength, joint mobility, functional ability and mood, without apparent increases in joint symptoms or disease. A benefit of exercising with the CORE X SYSTEM is that it’s gentle on the joints. Exercise has been proposed to have a pain-relieving effect similar to that of a pharmacological treatment for some people.
A growing body of research over the last 10 years substantiates that physical activity and exercise also improve psychological well-being. It is important to clarify that much of the research presented here is correlational, which means that the scientists studied the associations that exist between exercise and mental health variables, and not the causal relationships. Published investigations conclude that individuals with improved levels of fitness are capable of managing stress more effectively than those who are less fit . The data suggest an inverse relationship: higher physical fitness is associated with lower levels of stress. Studies describe the role of exercise in managing stress as a preventive intervention as opposed to a corrective intervention.
– Mood State
Frequently, fitness professionals hear clients say that they exercise because it makes them “feel good.” Because mood state is influenced by psychosocial, psychophysiological, biochemical and environmental factors, explaining the exercise-induced mechanism is quite difficult. Resistance exercise can positively affect various mood states, including tension, fatigue, anger and vigor (a psychological variable defining vitality or energy). It has been shown that a single bout of 25–60 minutes of resistance exercise (at low, moderate or high intensities) increases positive mood feelings while also decreasing negative mood feelings. Implications from these data denote the incorporation of habitual exercise in a person’s lifestyle for the enhancement of a positive mood state.
The antidepressant action is one of the most commonly accepted psychological benefits of exercise. Individuals with clinical depression tend to be less active than healthy, active adults and have a reduced capacity for physical exertion. Since people suffering from depression are not predisposed to participating in exercise, it is challenging for fitness professionals to introduce physical activity to this population. However, patients diagnosed with depression have credited exercise as being a most important element in comprehensive treatment programs for depression. Cardiovascular and resistance exercise seem to be equally effective in producing antidepressive effects. Therefore, the inclusion of resistance exercise and different modes of aerobic exercise in treatment programs should be encouraged.
It also appears that both acute exercise bouts and chronic exercise training programs have a positive effect on people with clinical depression. The greatest antidepressive effects seem to occur after 17 weeks of exercise, although observable effects begin after 4 weeks. In addition, the effects of exercise on depression seem equivalent in both genders and are uninhibited by age or health status.
According to the dictionary, anxiety is “distress or uneasiness of mind caused by fear of danger or misfortune.” It is a stage of apprehension. The results of over 30 published papers substantiate a link between acute and chronic exercise and the reduction of anxiety. Most of the research on exercise and anxiety involves aerobic or resistance training regimens. For participant adherence, exercise intensity should be set at an adjustable level agreed on by the individual in consultation with a fitness instructor.
The CORE X SYSTEM is a fun and easy resistance training program that can be used by all age groups and levels of athletic ability. Go to corexsystem.com to learn more!